Harappa Civilization of India

buzzo 1982

Apr 30, 2019
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The mature phase of Indus Civilization civilization is known as the Harappa Civilization.The initial inhabitants of people that reached India around 40,000 BC seem to have come from the African continent. Those peoples, who came from Africa to India, just like other people around the planet during that time, were originally gatherers and hunters. Hunting was the only art they knew and hence used it to the fullest to hunt down animals for the purpose of their food.

It has been established by renowned historians and archaeologists that around the 4000 BC these African nomads started farming and settled near the Indus river valley around 2500 BC. With time they started to increase their farming process and used the process of irrigation to full effect in order to water their field and farm land. The part of West Asia was already crowded and people started to move towards India, possibly because of lack of food and water. Historians argue that the primary reason for shifting base was the possible lack of water and food due to warming trend. So they shifted to Indus river valley and gradually started their own cultivation and farming. With time the population of Indus river valley began to increase as more and more people came to the place in search of food and water. The increase in the population level provoked the people of the Indus river valley to build cities and roads.

The people of the Indus valley constructed two major cities, and we know them as - MOHENJO-DARO and HARAPPA, about 250 miles away. Time has passed but these two cities are a part of history. Presently both the cities are in Pakistan. The people of these cities lived and stayed in stone houses, strongly built which were multi storied structures, with highly engineered drainage system. They used tools made of bronze and other hard substances which helped them cut hard objects. It is highly debated among historians about the originality of the bronze tools and it is speculated that the people of the HARAPPA civilization learned to use the tools and make bronze from the Sumerians. The people of the HARAPPAN civilization had their own letters, scripts and scriptures which were typical of that particular civilization. The writing and the scriptures were based on a particular format like the Egyptians, hieroglyphs. Unfortunately there isn’t much left for us to read.

All were going fine until the whole civilization suddenly collapsed. The true and real reason for the extinction is yet to be found but there are lot of conspiracy theories that are available among the history buffs and archaeologists. No one can say the real cause with certainty. It’s highly speculated from the data available from the excavation sites, that the collapse started around 2000 BC, when people began to starve and started to die due to lack of availability of food. The warming tend, as it was found, were the main cause for drying up of water bodies. The people as a result had nothing to drink. The warming effect took its tool on the people, who, unable to cope with hunger and heat fled the area and moved to higher terrains where it rained and was comparatively cooler. But for those who were unable to move were left top die due to lack of food and water. Thus, a vibrant civilization suddenly came to a stop.
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