Taitareyopanishad

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Brahmanand Valli (Taitareyopanishad) < ------------------------------------ > Bhrigu-Valli (Taitareyopanishad)


Introduction: This Upanishad is an integral part of the Taitareya Aranyaka of the Taitareya branch of the Krishna Yajurveda. Amongst the ten chapters of the Taitareya Aranyaka the seventh, eighth and ninth chapters comprise the Taitareya Upanishad.
PEACE INVOCATION


AUM SHAM NO MITRAHA SHAM VARUNANA|
SHAM NO MAVATVARYAMA| SHAM NO INDRO BRIHASPATIHI|
SHAM NO VISHNUURU-KLAMAHA|
NAMO BRAHMANE NAMASTE VAAYO|
TWAMEVA PRATYAKSHAM BRAMAASI| TVAMEVA PRATYAKSHAM BRAHMA VADISHYAMI|
RITAM VADISHYAMI| SATYAM VADISHYAMI| TANMAM AVATU|
TADVAKTARA AVATU| AVATU MAAMA| AVATU VAKTARAM|


FIRST CHAPTER

SHIKSHA VALLI

In the first chapter, the divine Cosmic spirit is praised by recitation of different names of that one force and is prayed by saying that may all the gods that represent the Adhibhautik, Adhyatmik and Adhidaivik be auspicious to all of us, who are also an integral part of that divine Cosmic spirit. May there be no obstacles in our oath towards growth and progress. We prostrate before thy Lord, supreme God who resides within one and all.

SECOND CHAPTER

RULES FOR RECITATION OF VEDIC INCANTATIONS

Generally speaking, as far as possible every person should try to maintain good diction and pronunciation while reciting every word of the Vedic literature. Less than perfect pronunciation is allowed in the language of common parlance, but the Vedic chants and Mantras have to be recited properly so that they convey the right meaning and hence exert their right influence.

The syllables need to be pronounced properly with proper effort. It is important to know the tone and the amount of time given for the pronunciation also while reciting, the method of singing also needs to be known properly.

THIRD CHAPTER

THE METHOD OF PROPITIATION/SUPPLICATION

The principal teacher needs to enhance the knowledge of his disciple so that the disciple treads on the path towards self-realization.

LOKA SAMHITOPAASANAA

May the teacher as well as the pupil become successful, may they both become radiant- in this way we begin the prayer. Now we shall describe the secret of the Samhitas taking into consideration- the people, the worlds, the flames, the knowledge, the subjects and finally the body.

These all cumulatively are referred to as 'Mahasamhita'. The first Samhita is concerned with the world or the earth. The prior form is earth and the latter form is heaven. The space is the junction between the earth and the heaven. The air is the regulator of all this.

PROPITIATION OF SAMHITA RELATED TO JYOTI

On this earth, the Agni is the prior form of the Samhita related to the Jyoti and the latter form is the Sun which is shining in the Dyuloka. As it is developed from these two, the clouds are the junctions and the ultimate aim of these clouds are the lightning.

PROPITIATION OF SAMHITA RELATED TO VIDYA (KNOWLEDGE)

Through this mantra, the importance of education and knowledge is emphasized. In the Samhita, the Acharya or preceptor is the prior form and the disciple who is curious, devoted and serving is the latter form. The knowledge that is between the teacher and the disciple is the junction. When this junction is exposed, the ultimate aim is the sermon given by the teacher and that being understood by the devoted disciple. That person who realizes this and serves his teacher becomes a scholar unequivocally.

PROPITIATION OF SAMHITA RELATED TO SUBJECTS

In this Samhita, the mother is the prior form and the father is the latter form. The child born from the union of both is the junction. The ultimate aim of this Samhita is begetting a child by having carnal relations according to the scriptures in the appropriate time.

PROPITIATION OF SAMHITA RELATED TO ATMAN (SOUL)

The lower jaw is the prior form of the Samhita while the upper jaw is the latter form. The voice, which emerges between this, is the junction and the aim is the tongue because without a tongue a human cannot speak or read. The speech or voice has tremendous energy. The voice has the energy to accrue in the physical and spiritual growth of every person.

THE BENEFITS OF ALL FIVE TYPES OF PROPITIATIONS

The benefits of the five types of propitiation is as follows- the person who knows all these things begets a child according to his desire, by becoming embellished with knowledge, he becomes radiant, he can attain all types of edible things, food and also different types of animals.

By gaining knowledge of the Samhita related to Loka (world) one acquires a place in the super celestial region, by knowing the Samhita related to Jyoti, one acquires knowledge of different material objects. By knowing the Samhita related to Praja (subjects), he begets children, by knowing the Samhita related to knowledge (Vidya) one acquires knowledge and radiance and by knowing the Samhita of spirituality, one acquires power of speech.

FOURTH CHAPTER

TYPES OF PRAYERS

In this chapter, the method of praying the divine Cosmic spirit is explained so that one can attain self-realization. 'AUM' is the name of the supreme God and is the mantra nobler than the mantras mentioned in the Vedas. This divine supreme God is referred to as 'Indra' and may that Indra embellish me with knowledge. O Lord! May I preserve your divine form in my heart without any desire as such. May my tongue be very sweet and polite. May I listen to only good words which accrue in the well being of all. O Omkar! You are the treasure of the supreme God. Inspite of this, you are enveloped by the material intellect of humans. O God! Please protect the prayer you have just heard.

O Supreme God, the protector of Agni! Please bless me with all types of things such as food, cows etc. without delay. May all this just grow and prosper. Give me wealth along with all the other animals such as goats, sheep etc.

It is the desire of all the Acharyas that may good, devoted people come to me to acquire knowledge. May all the Brahmacharis be devoid of wickedness and may they all control their senses. May they all have control over their minds.

In this way the preceptor prays to the Supreme God so that it results in the well being of the disciples and so that they can attain all the material and celestial pleasures. The fourth chapter covers the following topics: method of attaining material and celestial pleasures, prayer to the supreme God and method of performing religious sacrifice.

FIFTH CHAPTER

In the fifth chapter, the method of propitiation of the four Vyahritis is mentioned, that is, Bhu, Bhuvaha, Swaha and Maha, its secrets and the fruits. 'Bhu', this Vyahriti is Agni but not in the literal sense, Bhuvaha is the Vayu (air), Swaha is the Sun, Maha is the Moon.

These are not only Vyahriti in the systematic manner but also Rigveda, Samveda and Yajurveda. Maha is the Brahma but the Vedas sing the glory of that Brahma only. Here Bhu, Bhuvaha and Swaha represent Prana, Apana and Vyana.
 

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SIXTH CHAPTER

The sixth chapter speaks of the different relations of the topics covered in the previous chapters. There is a place in this heart where that divine Cosmic spirit resides. One can realize Him there itself. One does not need to go anywhere else to realize Him.

SEVENTH CHAPTER

This chapter comprises of two parts. The first section is divided into three parts i.e. the material objects such as Loka, Jyoti and Sthool padartha.

The second section is divided into three parts i.e. the important spiritual elements based in the body i.e. prana, kaarana and Dhatu and they are discussed briefly. The method of usage of all this is explained in the concluding chapter. The appropriate usage of all the material and minute objects and their realization can lead to material growth. This is the synopsis of this chapter.

EIGHTH CHAPTER

In this chapter the greatness of that 'Omkar' (Divine Cosmic spirit) is described so that people have faith and devotion towards the same. So as to say that 'Omkar' itself is the supreme God. Before reciting the name of 'Omkar' all the devotees say this prayer- 'Bless me with the intellect to understand the Vedas'.

NINTH CHAPTER

The ninth chapter instructs that people, who engage in the study and teachings should tread on the path that has been spoken of in the scriptures. This should be understood by even those who give and listen to sermons etc. So that study and teaching are undoubtedly important but the scriptures help to realize our duties and the benefits by working towards our goal assiduously.

Other than this, the things to be followed are good conduct, abstaining from telling lies, to bear the pain to uphold ones dharma, to control the mind and the senses, to perform Yagya, hospitality towards guests, following the conduct of the householder, to practice austerities and penance and self-study.

TENTH CHAPTER

A sage named Trishanku realized the supreme God and narrated his experiences. This chapter comprises of these narrations. He says that- I have uprooted this world which is nothing but a deadly cycle of life and death. This is my final birth. My glory is like a mountain which is gigantic. I am pure and now immortal.

ELEVENTH CHAPTER

Important instructions for a householder are mentioned in this chapter. Acharyas after teaching the Vedas, performing the Samavartan Sanskara teach the person to become a householder. They say- Son! Always speak the truth, do not seek recourse to lie even if the situations are adverse, adhere to all the rules coveted to the Varnashrama system. That is self-study, holy baths and supplications, recitation of Gayatri mantra and singing the praises of thy Lord.

Never neglect your duties. As a form of a fee, give wealth to your Guru with love and devotion. Engage in perpetuation of the family through procreation.

O Son! Consider your mother, father, guests as gods and respect them. Do not engage in any act that transgresses the rules. Engage in penance, good conduct, knowledge etc. which is sublime. Serve people, donate benevolently and with respect, give and donate out of pity and compassion.

If you are in a dilemma while performing any of your duties, consult scholars and Brahmins and act according to their instructions. This is the decree of the scriptures.

TWELFTH CHAPTER

Gratitude is expressed and the praises are sung of that Divine Cosmic spirit who is the protector of all the energies. May all the gods i.e. Mitra, Varuna who represents the Adhibhautik Adhidaivik and Adhyatmik be auspicious for all of us. Those who are integral parts of that divine Cosmic spirit. May there be no obstacle in our path towards progress. We prostrate before thy Lord, supreme God who dwells within one and all.

AUM SHANTI! SHANTI!! SHANTI!!!
 
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